Tientsin China History
China's war against foreigners shook the world in the summer of 1900, and its war against foreigners shook the world to its core. China's wars against foreigners shake the world The heart of the problem lies in the summer of 2000.
Chinese warlords in northern China waged a civil war from July 1920 to December 1925 against central government control in Beijing. The conflict came to a head in June 1900 when the Boxer, who was now allied with elements of the imperial army, attacked foreign facilities in the cities of Tianjin and Beijing. The Chinese army in Tientsin stood ready and waited for the arrival of a foreign army to support them and protect the foreigners.
The events of 1937 changed the situation when Japanese troops attacked and occupied the Chinese - and held part of the city of Tianjin. Although it was captured by the communists in mid-January 1949, it remained in the hands of the Republic of China until the end of 1949.
The British and French bombarded the city, but the Europeans, who prevailed, forced the Chinese to sign the Tianjin Treaty, which opened it to foreign trade. Peace did not last long, however, and hostilities resumed in Tian Jin in 1860, and the Beijing Convention declared the port an open trading port. In 1858, the British army invaded China, and China signed further trade rights in the "Treaty of Tianjin," but that peace did not last long. Although the Chinese signed the treaty in 1840, it took two years for their government to be ready to ratify it and accept the terms. When the 1860 Beijing Convention granted more rights to foreigners who came from the weak Qing Emperor Xianfeng, who had fled to Mongolia, Tianji was the subject of further fighting.
By the end of the 19th century, other countries had found their way to Tianjin, and they made their own small concessions to gain a slice of lucrative Chinese trade.
As a result of Tianjin, France, Russia and the United States signed treaties with China in quick succession in 1858. Treaties with Western countries concluded after the Opium Wars were called unequal treaties, because they gave foreigners privileged status in practice and demanded concessions from the Chinese. In 1857, the "Treaties for Tian Jinjin" were signed, officially opening it to foreign trade. This in turn led to the signing of the Treaty of Beijing in 1861, which opened the port to foreign trade, but also to a number of other concessions.
The Chinese government sided with the Boxer and ordered the army to attack foreign settlements. The impact on China was a weakening of that dynasty, but it was temporarily sustained by the fact that Europeans knew that the "Boxer Revolt" was anti-Qing. This contributed to the rise of republican sentiment in China, culminating in the overthrow of the dynasty and the establishment of a Republic of China a decade later. The failure of the Chinese government to defend China against foreign powers contributed in part to the great powers "decision to negotiate with China under the" Boxer Protocol "(September 7, 1901), which included the creation of fortified embassy quarters in Tianjin and Beijing, and the construction of fortifications in Beijing and Shanghai.
The experience of the events that preceded and surrounded the rebellion continued to influence the political and economic development of China and its people decades after the end of World War I.
The boxer revolt that shook the Qing Empire at the turn of the 20th century is an inevitable cornerstone in the investigation of European imperialism in China. The chronicle of China's 15th infantry really begins with the "Boxer Uprising" of 1900, when the United States helped liberate a besieged foreign embassy during the famous 55-day siege of Beijing. Eight Nations Alliance gained control of Tianjin in 1901 and ruled it until 1902, when it returned to a more cooperative ruler of the Qing Dynasty. The capture of Tientsin gave them a base from which to launch a campaign against foreigners who besieged the embassy quarter in Pekin (Pinyin: Beijing) and took Beijing after the Battle of Beijing in 1900.
Tianjin developed rapidly after the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, modernizing in a semi-colonial context in which rivalries and negotiations mingled.
Tianjin became the leading economic center of northern China and was rich in trade in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when it became cosmopolitan, with its ports, hotels, restaurants, hospitals, schools and universities.
Tientsin fell to Japan in the Second Sino-Japanese War and was occupied with foreign concessions that, like Shanghai, were largely respected by the Japanese until December 1941. The Japanese occupation of Tianjin lasted until the end of World War II, when the Kuomintang regained control of the city. Despite the loss of its economic and cultural center during the war, it remained China's epicenter of international trade and colonialism.